Automotive technology – Today’s energy consumption in the transportation sector is dominated by the demand for oil to produce gasoline and diesel. The oil products are used for land, rail, sea and air transportation. In 2006 energy consumption for transportation was recorded at more than 96% in the form of oil. Apart from oil, the demand for biofuels has also increased, albeit small, accompanied by the use of gas for transportation and electricity for railways.
Europe is expected to increase electricity as land transportation energy, supported by the increasing role of biofuels in the land transportation sector and perhaps even air transportation. This trend is driven more by climate change considerations, not energy security. However, this trend will also have a positive impact on energy security.
Increasing the energy efficiency of land transportation can be achieved in several ways, including through technology. The application of technology is needed to reduce energy consumption per kilometer traveled.
Vehicle efficiency can be significantly improved through the application of technology to engines and other parts of the vehicle. Some of these technologies have been applied to passenger vehicles under the agreement of ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association), JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association), KAMA (Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association), European Commission. The agreement aims to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicles.
Alternative technologies developed for passenger vehicles include petrol and diesel engine designs. Designs that focus on improving fuel consumption efficiency include direct injection otto-cycle, variable valve technology, and a smaller engine size. Other technologies include stop-start for efficient use of the engine when the car is stationary, as well as various hybrid-electric technologies (micro-hybrid, mild hybrid, and full hybrid). Most of these technologies can also be used for light commercial vehicles.
In addition to technological developments, land transportation energy efficiency can also be achieved by the presence of vehicles with low energy consumption. In addition, it can also be achieved with operational techniques to reduce energy consumption per kilometer of distance traveled. – Automotive technology